Turkish documentation procedures require that a commercial invoice and bill of lading or airway bill accompany all commercial shipments. Depending on the type of product, importers may be required to submit a Certificate of Origin. Import licenses and phytosanitary certificates are necessary for food and agricultural commodity imports.
The commercial invoice must be submitted in triplicate, including the original copy and must contain a complete description, quantity, unit cost, HS code, delivery method of the goods and country of origin as well as all required payment terms and letters of credit, if the transaction was actualized through this payment method.
Certificate of Origin is required by certain foreign countries for tariff purposes, certifying the country of origin of specified goods. The certificate of origin is to be prepared in duplicate. No corrections are permitted on this document, and it should be in English. A Certificate of Origin is usually prepared by the exporter or the freight forwarder and notarized and attested to by a local Chamber of Commerce or a World Trade Center. The Turkish Embassy or Consulate in the United States must certify the Certificate of Origin. One copy of the document must be surrendered to customs authorities at the time of importation.
Details in the bill of lading should correspond exactly to those given in other shipping documents. The original bill of lading should be submitted along with three copies.
The pro forma invoice must not be more than six months old at the time of application. The words “pro forma” must be included on the document. It must contain an unexpired option (if appropriate), indicate freight and insurance charges separately, and bear the importer's name as well as the description, unit price, quantity and delivery/payment method of specified goods.
Special health certificates are required for imports of plants, seeds, live animals and animal products. Plants, including fruits and vegetables, must be substantially free from pests and diseases and must have been grown in an area substantially free from prohibited pests and diseases.
Alcohol can be imported by the private sector by obtaining license and permission from the Tobacco Products and Alcoholic Drinks Market Regulatory Authority (TAPDK), an independent regulatory body. Inspection of imported products is regulated by the Communique on Import Inspection of Tobacco, Tobacco Products, Alcohol and Alcoholic Beverages (Regulation on Product Safety and Inspection: 2019/19). Nevertheless, non-tariff barriers, arduous documentation requirements, and high duty rates continue to limit trade in alcoholic beverages. Cigarettes can only be imported by cigarette producers, which are permitted by the government under a special decree
Facilitating the import and export of rich oil and natural gas to Black Sea countries, the port’s sea transportation has key importance in commercial activities. Istanbul thereby is known as the transhipment centre as well as exporting and importing hub.
The Port of Istanbul covers a large space comprising of three passenger halls, two of them covering an area of 4,000 m 2 (43,000 sq ft) each and another of 800 m 2 (8,600 sq ft). The port also has container terminals that can handle 1200 vessels a year and 144 thousand TEUs of containerized cargo. With the new terminal in place, the port is capable of handling 360 vessels a year and 410 thousand tonnes of cargo.
The Port of Istanbul was first used for sea borne trade during the Ottoman period when small boats and barges carried passengers and cargo across the sea. From 1925 onwards, the port authority was provided with all the necessary logistics to support the ships thus resulting in the dramatic increase of shipping operations.
Containing two large piers with 21 berths which specialise in handling dry bulk and general cargo, the port has diversified its activities. The Port of Istanbul also offers maritime transportation services in many forms ranging from dinghies and small ferries to large international liners thus paving a path for a better future.